First, Breathe. Then Let's Get Started.
If you've just discovered that your child is drinking or doing drugs, the first thing you need to do is sit down, relax, and take time to breathe.
I know it's a scary time, but you're in the right place. I can help you plan and determine what to do — how to gather information, have productive conversations, set tighter limits, and bring in outside help.
Take a deep breath, relax, and when you're ready, start with step one below.
Here's a checklist with information and tips to help you get focused.
PARENT CHECK LIST
Reach an agreement with your spouse beforehand.
We're all familiar with the kid's trick of going to the other parent when one says no. There are similar issues with drug and alcohol use-you will certainly hear about it if your spouse has different attitudes. It's best for you and your spouse to sit down to come to a common stance on drug and alcohol use before you talk about the issue with your teen.
Prepare To Be Called A Hypocrite
The important thing is you don't want YOUR TEEN doing drugs or drinking.
One of the questions you'll be sure to be asked is whether or not you have done drugs yourself. There are many responses if you experimented in the past. Today's drugs are much stronger than they were when you were young. You can say that you're sorry, and wish you had never tried drugs. Just don't let your teen manipulate you into a position where your response becomes a justification for them to use.
Gather Any Evidence
Evidence or no, it's good to talk to your teen about doing drugs and drinking.
You may have found evidence that your teenager is using. But what will happen if your teen says it belongs to someone else? It's good to anticipate all the different ways your teenager might try to deny usage. But in any case, you should bring the subject up.
Expect Denial And Possible Anger
Resolve beforehand to remain calm.
If you think this conversation will be uncomfortable for you, imagine how uncomfortable it will make your teenager. Be prepared for your teen to say things to shock you, to flat-out deny even the most convincing evidence, accuse you of distrust, and more. It's a good idea to think about how you're going to handle these responses
Set An Expected Outcome
Work toward a desirable - and realistic - outcome.
While it's good to open up the conversation with your teen in any capacity, your conversation will probably go more smoothly if you have a desirable outcome in mind. It's a good idea to keep your expectations low - it's probably not realistic to expect your teen to admit to use immediately and pledge to stop. But a more reasonable objective, like simply expressing that you don't want them to use, can be a small triumph.
Spell Out Rules And Consequences
Formulate an idea of what you'd like your rules to be.
It's a good idea to think through the rules you would like to set-and what the consequences of breaking them will be-before you sit down to have a talk with your teenager. That way you'll be able to clearly define what you would like the goal of your conversation to be, and you can set a clear next step. Have an idea of the rules and consequences you'd like to set going in
Recognize The Significance Of Addiction In The Family
Drug and alcohol dependence can happen to anyone. But if there is a history of addiction - cocaine, alcohol, nicotine, etc. - in your family, then your child has a much greater risk of developing an addiction. As a parent you need to be aware of this elevated risk and discuss it with your child regularly, as you would with any disease.
Remind Your Teen of Your Support
It's very important that you teen feels supported at all times by their parent (s). Be sure to let your child know that he or she can always count on you and come to you for support. Remind your child that you are always there to offer guidance.
What do You Know About Your Child’s Drug or Alcohol Use?
A big question parents must ask themselves is their feelings on snooping in their child's room. Whatever you decide, be prepared to defend yourself. If you have a reason for concern, say so. And remember, it's your house, and your primary responsibility is to the well–being of your child.
There is much information to keep track of, even if you have definitive proof that your teen is doing drugs. Use checklists to record everything that concerns you during this period–the date, time, where it occurred, what was found, and changes over time. You'll need it, because your child will work hard to convince you that things didn't happen the way you remember, or that the things you found are not what you think they are. In addition, all of this information will be invaluable when you seek outside help for your teen's problem.
Information to Track:
Helpful Things to Note:
Start Your Monitoring
Now is an especially important time to use the rules and consequences you've developed as tools to keep a close eye on your teen, their friends, activities, communications, coming and going, and much more. It's a lot of work – and it's ongoing – but you'll find that it pays big rewards.
Good places to look:
Get Outside Help and Support
"Outside help" is not rehab.
Don't be put off by the term "get help." Outside help includes school counselors, your family doctor, therapists who specialize working with teens and substance abuse and even your child's sports team coach. All of them can be great resources and sources of support for you and your teen during this time. There are many actions and approaches you can take that have nothing to do with rehab.
You don't have to do this alone.
Telling others about teenager's drug use can be scary. You may feel guilty or ashamed, fear you're going to embarrass your child or believe that you can "deal with it" on your own. But you can't handle this problem by yourself — and you shouldn't have to. It's important to get outside help.
Here are important tips to keep in mind when you seek outside help.
Find out the Extent of the Problem. Why does my child need help? Who can help my teen? Getting Help for the Rest of the Family.
Your child's drug use can be an act of teenage rebellion, a sign of full–fledged addiction, or anything in between. What you need help with first is identifying the actual problem. Professionals can use these methods help you pinpoint the issue you're dealing with. These methods will also help you decide the best course of action for your child:
Drug and Alcohol Assessment
This is a phone interview or face–to–face meeting between the user and a Therapist who Specializes in Addiction.
Evaluation or Screening
This is an extensive assessment in which your teen spends several sessions with the specialist.
Home drug tests can be unreliable. Also be aware that teens find all sorts of ways to beat these home tests therefore having your therapist perform a drug test can be a helpful tool.
Whether your child is addicted to drugs, uses them infrequently, or was just "experimenting" one time with friends, a problem exists. It is far more dangerous for an adolescent to use drugs or alcohol than an adult — because his brain and body are still growing, drinking or using can take a permanent, irreversible toll on a kid. And because their brains are not fully – developed, teens do not always make the best decisions; when you add alcohol or drugs to the mix, the consequences can be deadly. That's why you need to step in now and make sure that your child speaks and listens to all the various people who can help him quit using.
Kids — especially teenagers — often think of their parents as "overbearing" or "nagging." If your child hears the same information you're trying to give him from someone of authority, he may be more inclined to listen.
Many kids who use drugs have other problems in their lives. Some are stressed about school. Some feel very alone or have been deeply affected by family issues, such as divorce. And more than half of adolescent drug abusers also suffer from a (usually undiagnosed) psychological disorder, like depression, anxiety or bi–polar disorder. A therapist can help your child pinpoint and discuss the underlying issues behind his/her drug or alcohol use.
If your child's alcohol and/or drug use has started causing serious and recurring problems, their therapist will talk to your family and help you to consider looking into intensive treatment programs. Both in– and outpatient programs provide the stability, education, discipline, and counseling adolescents need to get better. Your child’s therapist should be able to provide you with a wide range of options for you to discuss. However, be aware that if your teen does not want to stop using drugs and or alcohol, treatment can be an expensive and often disappointing experience. Studies have indicated that relapse is very high in teens, with many teens returning to use within a month of leaving treatment. This does not mean it should not be considered.
Getting Help for You and Your Spouse/Partner
In order to help your child tackle her drug problem, you (and your partner) must be healthy and in a clear state of mind. However, many parents lose the ability to think and act rationally when they have a child in danger. Some parents become so obsessed with their child and her problem that they neglect the other important aspects of their own lives: their jobs, physical health, and other kids. It is therefore as vital that you seek help for your own emotional well-being as it is for your drug-using child.
Support Groups such as Al-Anon offer support to families.
Drug addiction affects more people than just the addict. Even if your non–drug–using children seem okay, chances are they're harboring some resentment towards their sibling and you for his destructive behavior or all the attention he's receiving, or may live in fear of the drug user's unknown future. These negative feelings are detrimental to both the user and the other family members. By getting help to make sure that your other children are emotionally stable and fully comprehend their brother or sister's situation, you're aiding in everyone's recovery and healing process. It also helps the non–using sibling to have his feelings of resentment and anger validated. They have a right to be angry, frustrated and hurt about the situation.
I'm too embarrassed to tell others about my child's drug use because of the stigma
It is unfortunate and understandable that you may feel a little embarrassed by telling others of your child's drug use, but the reality is that you must put your child's health first.
Substance use and abuse does not have the same negative stigma it once did. If you treat your child's drug or alcohol problem like a health issue and not a behavioral one, most others will follow suit. There will always be people who believe drug users are "bad people," but it's not up to you to worry about their views. It is up to you to keep your child healthy and out of harm's way.
Remember: As a parent, you are your child's biggest advocate! If you are too embarrassed to talk about his drug problem and get him help, no one else is going to do it. You are the person who can make a world of difference in this situation.
If you would like more information please contact Thom Kessler, LMFT, RAS. I am Licensed Psychotherapist and Registered Addiction Specialist.
Thom Kessler, LMFT, RAS
I think it’s important for parents of acting-out teens to ask themselves this question: If your teenager is abusing you verbally, calling you disgusting names and punching holes in the walls, what kind of spouse or parent do you think they are going to make? Unless something dramatic happens, people stay on the course of the lives they set in motion in childhood and adolescence. And if the course of your teen’s life is petty criminal behavior (starting with stealing from you), using drugs and alcohol, breaking personal property and intimidating everybody at home, know that this is not going to change on its own. Make no mistake, this is not a phase—rather, it’s a sign that your teen is developing unhealthy behaviors that may stay with them their entire life.
You should always try to have a conversation that solves problems, not a conversation that lays blame—because blame is useless.
I do service work at a prison and in talking to the men they often share their the stories of their teenage years. You know what they have shared with me about their behavior as teenagers? They admit that they were often abusive, both verbally and physically, stole from their parents, skipped school or stayed out all night, getting high and drinking. If anybody gave them a hard time at home, they acted out. They and pushed away their family, concerned friends and any teacher or school administrator so everybody would leave them alone. That is the harsh reality of ignoring or not dealing with a teen’s out-of-control behavior. So as a parent, I think you always have to ask yourself, “Where is this behavior headed? Where does this go?”
Some Tips on How to Hold Your Teen Accountable
1. Stop Blaming Yourself for Your Teen’s Behavior: Remember, it’s not whose fault it is—it’s who's willing to take responsibility. So if you're looking for answers and are trying to improve your parenting skills, then you're taking responsibility. Maybe you feel that you made mistakes in the past, but let's start here, today, with what you are willing to do for your teen now. The next step is to try to get your teen in a position where they become willing to take responsibility for their behavior.
2. Avoid Confrontations: I suggest to parents that they should not engage with their teen when they are angry. Don’t let your teen suck you into an argument when they slam their bedroom door loudly or roll their eyes at you. I think the best thing to do is say, “Hey, don't slam the door,” and then leave the room. Give your teen a verbal reprimand right there on the spot, and then leave.
3. Use “Pull-ups”: I think it’s also a good idea to be very specific with instructions in order to avoid a fight later. You can say, “Hey listen, when you put the dishes in the dishwasher, can you do me a favor and rinse them off first.” That’s called a “pull-up,” because you're actually just giving your teen a boost. It's like taking them by the hand and helping them get on their feet. You may need to do ten pull-ups a day, but that's okay. There are no hard feelings there. You don't hold a grudge, you don't cut him off when he’s talking, you're not saying, “I told you so; I warned you about this.” These responses—blaming, speeches, and criticism—all cut off communication. If you can have a relationship with your adolescent where you're still communicating 60 or 70 percent of the time, you’re doing pretty well.
4. Don’t Personalize It: If you get angry when your teen stomps off to their room or doesn’t want to spend time with you, you're personalizing their behavior. That gives them power over you. I understand that this is easy for parents to do, especially if your teen used to enjoy spending time with you and was fairly compliant when he or she was younger. But I think if you take your teen’s behavior as a personal attack upon you or your values, you maybe overreacting.
So if your teenager comes home late, don't take that personally. If they told you they were not going to do something and then they did it, don't personalize that. It’s not, “You let me down.” It’s, “You broke the rules and here are the consequences.” Just reinforce what the rules are and let your teen know they will be held accountable. The only time I think you should take something personally is when a teen is being verbally or physically abusive. If your teenager calls you foul names and is destructive to others or to property, you need to respond very strongly.
5. Run Your Home Based on Your Belief System: I believe parents should run their homes based on their own belief system, not on how other people operate, or how it appears families on television do things. It doesn’t matter if “Everybody’s doing it.” You need to tell your teen, “Well, I'm not ‘Everybody’s’ parent, I’m yours. And in our family, this is not allowed.” So if you believe it's not right for 16-year-olds to drink beer or smoke pot, then that's what you believe—and you need to run your home accordingly. If you believe that lying and stealing are wrong, then make that a rule in your house and hold your teen accountable for that behavior if they break the rules.
6. Develop and Implement a Behavior Contract: I don’t believe contracts are magic wands. But I do believe that if everybody understands what the game is and what the rules are, the chances of your child following those rules increase. In my experience working with teens, I’ve also found that if something is written down on paper, it becomes more real to them.
Behavioral Contracts are an important tool to use when your teen continues to act out and disregards house rules and is disrespectful. So sit down and draw up a contract with your teen that clearly defines what they have to do in certain key areas. Keep the contract simple, no more than 4 to 5 rules or “requests.” For each rule there should be 2-3 consequences attached to each rule. The consequences should increase in severity every time the rule is broken. Start out with a consequence that is significant but fair. It could also state that if they comply with the contract, they will be rewarded—and it should specifically outline what those rewards will be.
I will often, knowing in advance what the rules or requests that the parents would like to implement, offer to sit down with the teen and ask them to design the contract, especially the consequences. You would be surprised how often they agree to this idea and feel empowered to be part of the process that will help contain their behavior. The “buy in” is that they are now a part of the process rather then having the contact dictated to them, they feel more accountable to the contract for it is now their contract.
If you and your teen sign the contract together, it tends to place a greater importance on the contract. If your teen refuses to sign the contract do not force them, simply post the contract in plain view, such as on the refrigerator door. When a conflict arises due to one of the rules of the contract is broken simply refer to the contract.
Allow the contract to bear the brunt of your teen’s anger and frustration. Remember you must be consistent with the consequences and both parents must be united in supporting and following through with the terms of the contract. Two parents who can't get on the same page about how to hold their kids accountable can easily create that vacuum in power, which their acting-out child will only be too happy to fill. If one parent is seen not enforcing the contract or undermining the other parent that will send the wrong message to the teen and it sets up the other parent to be abused and seen as the “Bad Guy.”
Expect Some Pushback
You should expect your teen to react strongly to the new structure you impose as soon as you establish it especially if they had no say in the contract. Adolescents do not give up power easily. Your family may even go through some chaos for a time as your child fights against you. Their behavior will often get worse before it gets better. This can prove too much for the parents to endure and they will often give up before the contract has had a chance to work. However, you have to make that value judgment. Ask yourself, “Is it worth continuing to live like this, or is it worth going through some chaos for awhile to correct the situation?” Remember their behavior unless corrected will be with them for many years to come.
7. Be a Role Model: If you tell your teen the rules and then you break them, how do you think your adolescent will react? Do you think they will respect what you’ve said, or do you think the message will be, “Dad says that I shouldn’t lie, but he does sometimes, so it’s okay.” It’s imperative to be a good role model and abide by the rules you make yourself—or risk having them be broken over and over again by your teen.
8. Try Not to Overreact: Believe me, I understand that it's easy to overreact to teenage behavior. They can be really annoying, and they are often unaware—and don’t care about—other people’s feelings very much. But I think some objectivity on the part of parents is vital. So if your teen makes a mistake, like coming in past curfew, you don't want to overreact to it. Don't forget, the idea is not to punish—it’s to teach, through responsibility, accountability and giving appropriate consequences.
I think you should always ask yourself, “What does my teen need to learn so they do not make that same mistake next time? What can I do about that?” When a teen fails a test, the question should be, “So what are you going to do differently so you don't fail the next test?” You may hold your teen accountable, there may be a consequence, but you should always try to have a conversation that solves problems, not a conversation that lays blame—because blame is useless.
So let’s say your teen came home past their curfew and was high and or intoxicated. What do you do? Hopefully you will choose not to engage at this time but rather discuss the issue the following day, when you both are in a better state of mind. The following day you hold them accountable and enforce the consequences for that breach of the contract. Then you might ask, “What can you do differently the next time?” Then help your teen look at the range of options. If they become enraged simply refer to the contract and walk away. Never engage with an angry teen.
9. Physical Abuse, Substance Abuse and Stealing: I believe if your teen is stealing, being physically abusive or destructive of property or using alcohol or other drugs, you have to hold them accountable, even if it means involving the police. The bottom line is that if your teen is breaking the law or stealing from you, you need to get more help. I know parents who say, “I can't do that to my son,” and I respect that—it’s a very difficult thing to do. But in my opinion, you're doing your teen a favor by telling him that what he’s doing is unacceptable. He is not responding to parental authority or to the school’s authority, so you have to go to a higher level. Your teen has to learn how to respond to and respect authority if he's going to go anywhere in life. You may worry about your teen getting a record—but if he's under 18, I think you should worry more about him not changing his behavior. I have worked with many parents who in hindsight stated that they wished they allowed their teen to experience the legal consequences as a minor instead of as an adult.
I think that all teens have to be held accountable for their behavior. Ideally, we teach them how to behave. We model it ourselves and then we hold them accountable through giving consequences and helping them learn problem-solving skills.
Whether your teen is a well behaved or an out-of-control teenager, you need to hold him accountable. That means you tell him he’s responsible for his behavior; he’s making choices. Teens who are getting high, stealing, shoplifting and acting out are making very bad choices that may affect them for the rest of their lives.
These are had choices for parents but accountability does create change. It doesn't guarantee a complete inner change right away, but it sure forces behavioral change. And here’s the truth: nobody ever changed who wasn't.
Thom Kessler, LMFT, RAS
Marijuana has a chemical in it called tetrahydrocannabinol, better known as THC. All forms of marijuana are mind-altering (psychoactive). In other words, they change how the brain works. A lot of other chemicals are found in marijuana, too — about 400 of them, some of which are cancer causing. Using marijuana can also lead to disturbed perceptions and thoughts, and marijuana use can worsen psychotic symptoms in people who have schizophrenia.
Additionally, there are higher rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal thinking among people who use marijuana when compared to people who don't use. Teens who started using marijuana before age 15 are more likely to suffer from anxiety and depression in early adulthood. A new study shows that smoking marijuana is associated with a 40% increase risk of psychosis, and the risk is greater among regular and frequent users. Marijuana is addictive. More teens are in treatment with a primary diagnosis of marijuana dependence than for all other illicit drugs combined.
Young people who use marijuana weekly have double the risk of depression later in life.
Heavy Marijuana users are more likely than non-users to be diagnosed with schizophrenia later in life. A recent study found that people who had used marijuana more than 50 times before the age of 18, had a three fold increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.
Marijuana can cause increased heart rate and make some users extremely anxious or paranoid.
Heavy marijuana use impairs young people's ability to concentrate and retain information.
The short-term effects of marijuana can include problems with memory and learning.
Thom Kessler, LMFT, RAS
Marriage & Family Therapist and Registered Addiction Specialist